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Technology New Technique Reveals Hidden Infant Planets Orbiting a Newborn Star

02:06  14 june  2018
02:06  14 june  2018 Source:   gizmodo.com

Astronomers spot a trio of Earth-sized planets orbiting a distant star

  Astronomers spot a trio of Earth-sized planets orbiting a distant star Humanity is going to have to leave Earth eventually. We've already messed up our planet pretty badly, and even if we don't push the Earth completely over the edge ourselves there's the simple fact that no planet lasts forever. The planets, which were discovered around a star called K2-239, are incredibly close to Earth in overall size, with radii measuring between 1.0 and 1.1 times that of our own planet. The research was published in the Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society.

To detect the new planets , the astronomers used a new technique that detects anomalous patterns of flowing gas within planet -forming disks. ALMA image showing a “kink” in the wavelength of flowing gas within the protoplanetary disk in orbit around infant star HD 163296.

The two newborn planets orbiting HD 163296 are not yet fully formed, and each is about the size of Saturn, the second-largest planet in our solar system. Observations of the star 's disk revealed evidence of two infant planets forming there, officials said.

a blurry image of a star: Artist’s interpretation of the three protoplanets. © Illustration: NRAO/AUI/NSF; S. Dagnello Artist’s interpretation of the three protoplanets.

Since the 1990s, scientists have detected thousands of exoplanets orbiting distant stars, but the discovery of baby protoplanets embedded within stellar expanses of gas and dust has proven to be a challenge. An international team of astronomers has used a new technique to finally discover not one, but three infant planets around a newborn star—an incredible finding that’s affirming long-held assumptions about planet formation.

Normally, exoplanets are detected when they move in front of their host star, resulting in a brief dimming effect, or when their gravity causes a host star to jiggle ever so slightly. But these techniques don’t lend themselves very well to the study of protoplanetary disks—murky expanses filled with rocks, dust, and gas. This is a problem because scientists would very much like to detect protoplanets; the going theory is that planets form within these disks, but astronomers have never actually seen this process in action, nor have they ever detected an infant planet within these dusty incubators. But that’s now changed, thanks to two new papers published today in Astrophysical Journal Letters.

Earth-Sized Rocky Exoplanets, Super-Earths Discovered

  Earth-Sized Rocky Exoplanets, Super-Earths Discovered The distant exoplanets were identified in the data gathered by the K2 mission of NASA’s Kepler satellite. Essentially, due to their orbits, the planets kept blocking the light from their respective stars from time to time, creating transits which allowed the team to see the bodies for the first time.Once the planetary systems were spotted, follow up investigation from Gran Telescopio Canarias (GTC) located at the Roque de los Muchachos Observatory in Spain revealed their basic features.

Artist-view-of- a - newborn -giant- planet . How did these giant planets get into orbits 100 times closer to their host stars than our own Jupiter is to the Sun? The infant sun where this new hot Jupiter was found is only two million years old – the stellar equivalent of a week-old human baby.

The two newborn planets orbiting HD 163296 are not yet fully formed, and each is about the size of Saturn, the second-largest planet in our solar system. Observations of the star 's disk revealed evidence of two infant planets forming there, officials said. After stars are born , clouds of leftover

Using the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) in Chile, two teams of astronomers have detected three infant planets around HD 163296, a young star located about 330 light-years from Earth. This star is twice the size of our own Sun, but at four million years old, it’s a mere one-thousandth the Sun’s age. To detect the new planets, the astronomers used a new technique that detects anomalous patterns of flowing gas within planet-forming disks.

The team, led by Richard Teague, an astronomer at the University of Michigan, found a pair of Jupiter-massed protoplanets located 7.4 billion miles (12 billion km) and 13 billion miles (21 million km) from the host star—that’s 80 and 140 times the distance from the Earth to the Sun (AU), respectively.

Having Two Or Three Suns Doesn't Hurt Exoplanets

  Having Two Or Three Suns Doesn't Hurt Exoplanets We think of stars as individual things, but that's not really the case—only a slim majority of solar systems in the universe contain just one star.It turns out that situation isn't quite as chaotic as might have been expected, according to new research presented at the annual conference of the American Astronomical Society held this week in Denver, Colorado.

The two newborn planets orbiting HD 163296 are not yet fully formed, and each is about the size of Observations of the star 's disk revealed evidence of two infant planets forming there, officials said. A newly proposed technique could make it possible to search for life on alien planets much

For the first time, scientists have found a giant planet snuggled up against a newborn star , a rare discovery offering a new glimpse at how such planets develop. The 'hot Jupiter' planet was found orbiting the star V830 Tau, as seen in this artist's conception.

Independently, astronomer Christopher Pinte and his team from Monash University in Clayton, Australia, found a planet a bit further out, around 24 billion miles (39 billion km) from the host star, or 260 AU. All three planets were firmly embedded within HD 163296’s protoplanetary disk.

a star filled sky: ALMA image showing a “kink” in the wavelength of flowing gas within the protoplanetary disk in orbit around infant star HD 163296. © Image: ESO, ALMA ESO/NAOJ/NRAO; Pinte et al. ALMA image showing a “kink” in the wavelength of flowing gas within the protoplanetary disk in orbit around infant star HD 163296.

ALMA has been used before to study protoplanetary disks, but this time around the telescope was used to take a much closer look, specifically at the way carbon monoxide (CO) gas flows within this planet-forming region. Carbon monoxide molecules give off a distinctive millimeter-wavelength light signature, which ALMA is able to detect. Astronomers use the Doppler shift to see how this gas moves within the disk. All things being equal—at least from a gravitational perspective—the gas should flow in a steady, predictable pattern. But that’s not what the astronomers saw. At three specific regions within the protoplanetary disk, the gas makes dramatic movements in the form of shifting carbon monoxide wavelengths. These movements, the astronomers argue, are being caused by massive objects, which they interpret to be the three protoplanets. The effect can be compared to the way water eddies form in a river around large rocks.

Scientists find ancient stardust on Earth, and it’s even older than our Sun

  Scientists find ancient stardust on Earth, and it’s even older than our Sun Everything you see around you — from the birds flying above to the grass below your feet and even the digital display you're reading this on — is made up of particles that were once floating listlessly in outer space. Over billions of years, a lot of that material formed stars, planets, and eventually life itself, but not all of it. An international team of researchers just published a new study that reveals the discovery of some of that “stardust” right here at home.The work, which was conducted at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, used samples collected from the upper atmosphere of Earth.

In the constellation of Sagittarius, three infant planets have been found orbiting a young star 330 light-years from Earth. Three 'baby' planets found forming around newborn star . By Ashley Strickland, CNN. JUST WATCHED. New planets found forming around star .

astronomy. Stellar Disks Reveal How Planets Get Made. ByJoshua Sokol. But these and other systems do contain tantalizing — albeit indirect — hints that infant planets may be hiding within. In this case, the triggering object orbiting the star HD 100453 was a dwarf star , which is easier to spot

a star in the dark: Mind the gap: This ALMA image shows wide gaps within a protoplanetary disk, which may or may not be caused by forming planets. © Image: ESO, ALMA ESO/NAOJ/NRAO; A. Isella; B. Saxton NRAO/AUI/NSF Mind the gap: This ALMA image shows wide gaps within a protoplanetary disk, which may or may not be caused by forming planets.

Previous studies (also using ALMA) highlighted the presence of large gaps within protoplanetary disks. These gaps, it was theorized, were caused by forming planets. That may very well be the case, but the evidence was circumstantial at best, and the data used in these studies couldn’t be used to estimate the size of the suspected planets. The new technique can do exactly that, while providing a superior way of peering inside these planet-forming disks to see what’s actually going on inside.

It’s an exciting result that showcases ALMA’s ability to sniff out baby planets. The success of this new technique also means other protoplanetary disks should be studied in a similar way. And indeed, both teams are planning to do exactly that.

[Astrophysical Journal Letters, Astrophysical Journal Letters]

Mama June struggles to get into size 8 dress on From Not To Hot... after dropping 300lbs via surgery .
Mama June struggled to get into a size 8 dress on Saturday's episode of the reality television show's third season, just months after dramatically dropping 300lbs via weight loss surgery. The 38-year-old was trying to squeeze into a beauty pageant gown after promising daughter Honey Boo Boo she would compete. © Provided by Associated Newspapers Limited Heave! Mama June struggled to get into a size 8 dress on Friday's From Not To Hot But after picking up the piece from the tailor's, the reality star could not force the unfortunate garment on.

Source: http://us.pressfrom.com/news/science-and-technology/-155035-new-technique-reveals-hidden-infant-planets-orbiting-a-newborn-star/

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